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Glossary

Abbreviations and Terminology

A-Z
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
0-9
 

A

Access PointDevice in a WLAN connecting between wireless stations and towards the wired network.

 
ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a transmission method for high-speed data transmission using regular phone lines. It is an asymmetric broadband data transmission method that is connected to the conventional copper twin wire in the exchange area. An ADSL modem must be installed on both sides of the connection line for ADSL communication.

 
Always on

Always online characterises a permanent Internet, cellular network or fixed line network connection (device is registered with the network and only transmits data on demand). Leased lines and other Internet access methods that are billed flat or based on volume are suitable for such a connection. Connections that are billed based on time, are not suitable for always on since high cost may arise. Connections that are only established temporary on demand are called dial on demand or shorthold mode.

 
Annex

The annex defines the frequency usage on the (original) phone line for the different ADSL standards. This is used to keep frequencies for telephony (analogue - A, ISDN - B) free and distribute them to upload and download. Annex A, Annex B, Annex J, Annex L and Annex M exist at the moment.

 
APNThe Access Point Name designates a registration point for data connections in cellular networks; it controls access rights and assigns IP addresses.

 
AT command

Originally a command language in text form by Hayes for controlling analogue modems via terminal programs. Mostly standard commands for basic functions and enhanced in many cases for additional functions and modem-like devices. Each command starts with AT that is derived from attention.

  • INSYS devices: all devices with serial interface
 

B

Backbone

Separate infrastructure (high-performance network) with major character for information exchange between identical or different network structures. It usually consists of a fibre optic network as well as satellite-based communication elements.

 
Bandwidth

The bandwidth (frequency range) indicates a continuous frequency range in Hertz that is reserved for a certain transmission channel, like e.g. medium wave (radio), UMTS (cellular radio). The term bandwidth is often used wrongly as a synonym for data transmission rate.

 
Block rounding

Rounding to e.g. "full 1 kB or 100 kB packets" by the Internet APN of the network provider per time unit, e.g. per hour or day AND per session; see also Traffic. This may cause that a much higher volume is charged than the actually used volume for rates that are charged per volume, if e.g. the session is always terminated upon each GPRS-/EDGE or UMTS data transmission.

 
Bluetooth

Radio standard in the 2.4 GHz band - for industrial use, especially serial cable substitute in the close-up range up to 100 m

 
bps

Bits per second is the unit of the transmission speed in bits per second; also bit/s

 
Bridge

Network device for connecting two media to a network segment

 
Broadcast

In case of a broadcast, data packets in a computer network are transmitted from one point to all participants of a network. Each recipient of a broadcast must accept the message and decides whether to process the message or rejecting it tacitly.

 
BSC

A Base Station Controller assumes the management for the handover of a cellular radio participant from a base station (BTS, Base Transceiver Station) to the next (i.e. from cell to cell). It manages several cellular radio base transceiver stations. It takes care that a phone call will not be interrupted and handed over to another cell mast even during driving. If the BSC fails, all base transceiver stations connected to it will be offline. Several base station controllers are managed by a higher-level switching center (MSC, Mobile Switching Center).

 
BTS

Each cellular radio participant contacts a base station first when registering to the cellular network. These are nearly identical for the conventional GSM network and the modern UMTS network, but have different names: BTS for Base Transceiver Station in GSM networks and Node B in UMTS networks. Several cellular base transceiver stations (BTS) are managed by a base station controller (BSC).

 

C

CA

The Certificate Authority is responsible for generating, issuing and managing digital certificates and acts as a trustworthy third instance within a security infrastructure (PKI), the so-called Trusted Third Party (TTP). The CA generates a key upon request of a certificate user and after the check of the decidedness. Moreover, it issues digital certificates, signs public keys and publishes them in the directory. The digital certificate certifies the authenticity of the public key and the digital signature. In addition, the CA keeps certificate revocation lists (CRL), that inform about blocked and invalid certificates, and sends status information for individual certificates upon OCSP requests. An organisation can have own certification authorities or use a commercial certification authority.

 
Certificate

A digital certificate is a data set that confirms certain characteristics of persons or objects and whose authenticity and integrity can be verified using cryptographic methods. The digital certificate contains the data necessary for verification in particular.

 
CLI

A Command Line Interface is a text-oriented user interface in contrast to a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The configuration and control of functions can be performed in both ways as well as by uploading a file for all current router products of INSYS icom *). The CLI can be accessed from the local network or remote using Telnet or encrypted via SSH and is protected against unauthorised access by user name and password (alternatively using a Radius server).

The direct access speeds up automated configuration processes significantly: If users want to configure several routers, this can be done much easier and faster automated using the Command Line Interface (CLI) compared to a manual configuration using the web interface. Alternatives are the uploading an ASCII file or using the auto update function of the devices.

CLI allows an automated, regular check for detecting unauthorised configuration changes or manipulations in case of increased IT security requirements, like in critical infrastructures for example.

*) CLI starting with Firmware 2.12.0

 
Client

Device that requests services from another device (server).

 
CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access or Code Division Multiplex (CDM) is a multiplex method that allows a simultaneous transmission of different data streams on a common frequency range. CDMA is one of the most important transmission technologies in cellular UMTS networks (3G) under the designation Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WCDMA). The bandwidth used here is 4.4–5 MHz depending on the network provider.

 
CHAP

TheChallenge Handshake Authentication Protocol is used for the authentication via the point-to-point protocol (PPP, data link layer of the Internet protocol family). The advantage over the predecessor PAP is a much higher security already with the 3-stage authentication.

 
CLIP

Calling Line Identification Presentation is a service feature for incoming calls in analogue and ISDN telephone networks as well as cellular radio. The phone number of the calling participant will be transmitted to the called participant here, if no calling line identification restriction (CLIR) is used.

 
CN

Common Name; unique name used by a participant (master, slave) in an OpenVPN network for the authentication against other participants. Each Common Name must exist only once in an OpenVPN network.

 
COM server

Serial Ethernet gateways convert serial data to data packets for transmission via Ethernet

 
CRL

The Certificate Revocation List is a file, which contains the revoked certificates issued to a certain root certificate. Therefore, there is an own CRL per root certificate. Expired certificates are not taken into account in the CRL.

 
CSD

Circuit Switched Data is a data transmission service within the GSM network for a wired transmission towards GSM devices, ISDN-TAs and modems.. Data rates of up to 14400 bps are possible. Billing is usually based on connect time (like telephone calls).

 
CTS

Clear To Send is an RS232 control line for the handshake.

 

D

Data bit

RS232: Number of user data in bits per data word.

 
Data transfer rate

The digital data volume transmitted via a transmission channel per time unit.  It is usually specified in bits per second.

 
DCD

Data Carrier Detect is an RS232 control line for the connection status.

 
DCE

Data Communication Equipment is a collective name for network equipment that transmit data signals between data terminal equipment.

 
DHCP

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol allows the automatic integration of a new computer into an existing network without its manual configuration. This is achieved by DHCP servers that are able to transfer an IP address and other parameters dynamically to DHCP clients upon their request.

 
Dial-in / dial-out

incoming or outgoing data communication as seen from a router: Dial-in means that the router may accept a modem connection via which to transmit TCP/IP data traffic.

 
DIN rail

Also: DIN top hat rail: standard mounting rail (35 mm) for control cabinets

 
DNS

The Domain Name System is one of the most important services in the Internet. Its main task is to respond requests for name resolution. The DNS is a hierarchic directory service that is distributed across thousands of servers world-wide and manages the namespace of the Internet. This namespace is broken up in so-called zones and independent administrators are responsible for those zones. It is also possible to operate a DNS that is independent from the Internet for local requirements – for example within a company network.

 
Domain

The domain is the name of an Internet site (e.g. insys-icom). It consists of the name and an extension (Top Level Domain, e.g. .com), (e.g. insys-icom.com).

 
DSL

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL or xDSL) is a generic name that designates all methods for digital broadband use of phone lines in the exchange area, like ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+, IDSL, RADSL, SDSL, HDSL, VDSL, VDSL2, CDSL and SHDSL. All technologies have been developed in particular for the existing twin copper wires of the phone wiring in the local phone network.

 
DSR

Data Set Ready is an RS232 control line for device readiness.

 
DTE

Data Terminal Equipment is a collective name for terminal equipment of a data transmission path. Data terminal equipment can transmit send data (TxD) and receive data (RxD) via its interfaces. The name data terminal equipment is a synonym for terminals, personal computers, workstations, mainframes etc., if these are the termination point of a data transmission path.

 
DTMF

Dual Tone Multiple Frequency designates tine dialling. A method for quicker call establishment for new telephones and cellphones in contrast to pulse dialling for old analogue telephones. DTMF tones are also suitable for controlling menu-controlled services (e.g. answering machines) directly via the telephone keypad.

 
DTR

Data Terminal Ready is an RS232 control line for device readiness.

 
DynDNS / DDNS

System for updating domain name entries in real-time. DynDNS (dynamic DNS) allows to access a permanently changing address using a fixed name. This is necessary for example if a server needs to be accessed that is behind a router, which gets a new public IP address assigned by an Internet Provider periodically.

 

E

EDGE (E-GPRS)

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution designates the cellular data service of the intermediate generation 2.5G. Packet-oriented communication based on TCP/IP and UDP/IP. Billing usually based on data volume. Data rates theoretically up to 384 kbps, in real life up to 200 kbps.

  • INSYS devices: all cellular devices

 
Ethernet

Specification and common name for the most common protocols and wiring models for local networks (LAN). Standardised procedures and technical equipment for data transmission between devices (computer, printer, PLC, etc.) in local networks (LAN) in form of data frames as per IEEE 802.3.

 

F

Firewall

Network device or function for selective forwarding of data, e.g. based on IP addresses, ports or protocols

 

G

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service designates the cellular data service of the intermediate generation 2.5G. Packet-oriented communication based on TCP/IP and UDP/IP. Billing usually based on data volume. Data rates theoretically up to 171 kbps, in real life up to 85 kbps. Worldwide network coverage.

  • INSYS devices: all cellular devices

 
GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications designates the cellular service of the second generation with the services voice, SMS and direct data communications (CSD, GPRS, EDGE).

  • INSYS devices: all cellular devices
 

H

HAN

Home Area Network is a concept for wireless and wired networks. First defined as network for communication and load control in smart grids and for energy measurement data transmission for smart metering. Later expanded by the fields building management systems and consumer electronics.

More about data communication in buildings automation systems, about Smart Home and about energy efficiency.

 
HVAC

Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning is an umbrella term for heating, ventilation and air conditioning technology. These systems are part of building equipment. Energy saving air conditioning becomes more important with growing environmental awareness and increasing requirements. Modern systems have less noxious emissions and lower operating costs with lower energy consumption. Key words are heat recovery, cold recovery, moisture recovery and after-cooling.

More about data communication in buildings automation systems, about Smart Home and about Energy Efficiency.

 
HMI

Human Machine Interface is everything from on-off-switches via keyboards up to high-resolution touch screen monitors as user interfaces from a human to a technical equipment.

 
HSCSD

High Speed Circuit Switched Data is an extension of the cellular GSM standard CSD for faster data transmission. Data channels are bundled here what may lead to theoretical data transmission rates up to approx. 115.2 kbit/s (= 8 * 14.4 kbit/s).

 
HSDPA

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (also 3.5G, 3G+ or UMTS Broadband) is a transmission method and an extension of the cellular standard UMTS for the downlink. Data rates of 3.6 or 7.2 Mbit/s are typical; up to 14 Mbit/s are maximum possible.

 
HSPA

High Speed Packet Access is an enhancement of UMTS for higher data rates and is broken up into HSDPA for the downlink and HSUPA for the uplink. Another evolutions stage is HSPA+ which can achieve similar high data rates as LTE, but has the advantage that older UMTS terminal devices still remain compatible, however without reaching the high data rates.

 
HSUPA

High Speed Uplink Packet Access (also 3.5G, 3G+ or UMTS Broadband) is a transmission method and an extension of the cellular standard UMTS for the uplink. Data rates of 1.45 Mbit/s are typical; up to 23 Mbit/s are maximum possible.

 

I

ICMP

Internet Control Message Protocol is a protocol that is often used to control a network. The program "ping" uses ICMP for example.

 
IMAP

TheInternet Message Access Protocol is a network protocol that provides a network file system for e-mails. In contrast to POP, users are able to store and leave their mails, folder structures and settings on the mail servers. Thus, an access is also possible across several and different clients.

 
IMEI

The International Mobile Equipment Identity is a unique 15-digit device number of the cellular terminal equipment. The first eight digits are the type allocation code, the next six digits are the serial number and the last digit is a check digit. The IMEI can be retrieved using the USSD code *06#.

 
IMSI

The International Mobile Subscriber Identity is a network-internal identifier of the cellular network participants. It is stored on the SIM card and serves for the positive identification of the network participant and the routing within the cellular network.

 
IO tunnelling

I/O tunnelling (input transmission) transmits the conditions of the potential-free inputs of an INSYS device permanently to the assigned outputs of a remote device. The function is available offline, online and also with established TCP connection and forwards switch conditions of sensors or control signals for actuators world-wide through packet-based data networks in a simple way.

 
IP address

Internet Protocol-Address which is assigned to a device in a network that it can be addressed and accessed.

 
IP forwarding

Describes the possibility of forwarding a connection coming in via a network to a certain IP address to another IP address within a local network.

 
IPsec

Internet Protocol Security is a security architecture for internet protocols, e.g. as a base for VPNs.

 
IPT

Internet Protocol Telemetry or IP Telemetry is a protocol for the transmission of measuring values and specified in DIN 43863-4:2006-09 "Meter data communication - IP Telemetry". IPT can be compared wit an exchange for IP-based serial data streams. It is service-oriented, offers pull and push services and provides management and scaling functions.

 
IPv4

Internet Protocol Version 4 is a switch protocol for Internet and office communication that uses addresses with a length of 32 bit. The addresses are usually written decimal in four blocks with 8 bit each that are separated by dots (e.g. xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx). It is divided into a network and a host address part. Devices are in the same IP network and can communicate directly with each other, if the network part of the address is identical. Each host address must only be assigned once in an IP network. The division between network part and host address part is performed by the subnet mask. A subnet mask that specifies that the first 24 bit of the address are part of the network part, is written as 255.255.255.0 or by adding /24 to the IPv4 address (e.g.xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/24).

 
IPv6

Internet Protocol Version 6 is a data transmission method, which is intended to replace the IPv4 protocol that is still used predominantly today, since it has a much larger address range. It uses addresses with a length of 128 bit, while the last 64 bit are an identifier that is unique for the network interface. The addresses are usually written hexadecimal in eight blocks with 16 bit each that are separated by colons (e.g. xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx).

 
ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network is an international standard for a digital telecommunication network.

 
ISP

The Internet Service Provider can be called using a dial-up connection (e.g. with an analogue modem or ISDN-TA). The ISP will then provide access to the Internet via this dial-up connection.

 
ITS

Intelligent Transport Systems stands for traffic telematics and designates the acquisition, transmission and processing of traffic-related data to organise and control the onshore, offshore and aerial traffic as well as informing the traffic participants.
Applications and solutions

 

J

 

K

kbps 

Kilobits per second is a unit for the indication of the transmission rate in units of 1,024 bits per second.

 
KNX 

KNX is a field bus for building automation and the only open standard for home and building system technology world-wide. It has developed as a uniform technology platform from the combination of the three bus standards EIB, EHS and Batibus.

 

L

LAN

Local Area Network is a local network that is usually based on Ethernet and IP and used in home networks and small businesses.

 
LAN modem

Alternative name for a serial Ethernet gateway, like e.g. the INSYS Ethernet or i-modul Ethernet.

 
Leased line

A leased line is a permanent (fix) connection between two communication partners via a telephone network. In contrast to a dial-up line, the complete transmission path is always available.

 
LTE

Long Term Evolution (other names: 3GPP, E-UTRAN (Evolved UTRAN), High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA), Super 3G and 3.9G) is the fourth generation cellular standard that is defined within 3GPP as UMTS successor. Peak data rates of 300 Mbps in downlink and 75 Mbps in uplink and latency times below 5 ms are possible.

 

M

M2M

Machine-to-Machine stands for the automated information exchange between terminal devices like machines, automatic units, vehicles or containers with a central control station or among each other. This also enables the remote monitoring, control and maintenance of machines, plants and system, what is usually referred to as telemetry.

 
MAC address

The Media Access Control Address is part of a an Ethernet interface (network adapter). Each Ethernet interface has a unique global number, the MAC address. The typical appearance of a MAC address is hexadecimal 00-05-B6-14-27-8B, where the first three bytes are the manufacturer code, here INSYS, and the last three bytes are a consecutive number.

 
Mbps

Megabits per second is a unit for the indication of the transmission rate in units of mega bits per second.

 
M-Bus

Metering-Bus is a standardised field bus for remote readout of smart meters (gas, water, electricity and heat, etc.). Two-wire master/slave bus concept for wired systems or as wireless M-Bus. INSYS icom eDetect

 
MID

Measuring Instruments Directive is a European directive 2004/22/EG about measuring devices. In force since October 30, 2006. It describes the harmonised requirements for various measurement device types. Amongst others, it is effective for water meters, gas meters, electricity meters, heat meters. PDF

 
Modem

Sands for Modulator-Demodulator and is a communication device for data transmission via analogue channels, especially the analogue telephone network.

 
MoRoS

Stands for Modem Router Switch and is a product family of INSYS icom. Data transmission via telephone, cellular and data networks. The devices provide a sandbox for customer applications (apps). Virtual Private Network (VPN) and firewall protect the data traffic. Product information

 
MSC

Several cellular base stations (BTS, Base Transceiver Station) are managed by a controller (BSC, Base Station Controller). Several controllers are managed by a higher-level switching center, the Mobile Switching Center.

 
MSN

The Multiple Subscriber Number allows to access an ISDN basic rate interface via several phone numbers. The distribution of the MSNs across the terminal devices is flexible.

 
Multicast

Multicast in the telecommunications industry describes a message transmission from one point to a group (multipoint connection, group call). The advantage of multicast is that messages can be transmitted to several participants or a closed participant group simultaneously without multiplying the bandwidth for the sender with the number of participants. With multicasting, the sender requires the same bandwidth only like a single recipient. In case of a packet-based data transmission, the multiplication of the packet takes place at each distributor (switch, router) on the route.

 

N

NAT

Network Address Translation is a collective name in computer networks for methods to replace automatically address information in data packets with other information transparently. NAT is usually used on routers.

 
Netmask

See Subnetmask.

 
Node B

Base station in a cellular UMTS network. A Node B usually supplies three or six UMTS cells.

 
NTBA

Network Termination for Basic Access is the network termination of the ISDN basic rate interface.

 

O

OpenVPN

OpenVPN is a program for establishing a virtual private network (VPN) using an encrypted TLS connection. OpenVPN is free software under GNU GPL and supports various operating systems. Libraries of the OpenSSL program are used for encryption. OpenVPN uses either UDP or TCP for transport.

 
Overhead

Overhead (management data) are those data in a data transmission that are not part of the payload, but are required as additional information for transmission or storage. This includes for example a verification code returned to the sender by the recipient for ensuring the correctness of the transmitted data. The size of the management data may be an important criterion for deciding to use certain methods and technologies in IT to minimise the bandwidth and storage space requirement.

 

P

PAP

The Password Authentication Protocol is used for the authentication via the point-to-point protocol (PPP, data link layer of the Internet protocol family) and described in RFC 1334. It is often used for dial-in to ISPs using a modem. Since the authentication password is transmitted unencrypted together with the user identification with PAP, it is subject to eavesdropping. The improved protocol CHAP verifies the access by encryption and decryption of a random number.

 
Parity

Control bit for data integrity during serial data transmission.

 
Partyline

With a partyline (or multidrop line), several modems can be connected to a two-wire leased line and communicate with each other.

 
Payload

Payload is that part of the total data volume of a data transmission that remains for the information to be transmitted after deducting the overhead data. Overhead data are e.g. header data, information about sender and recipient, correction data like cyclic redundancy check or security protocol data.

 
Payload data rate

The payload data rate indicates that part of the total data rate that remains as actually usable capacity of the medium for the current payload after deducting the Overhead (data that causes header data, e. g. due to information about sender, recipient, correction data (usually cyclic redundancy check), re-transmission and others), errors , etc.

 
PKI

A Public Key Infrastructure (security infrastructure) is an environment that provides services for encryption and digital signature on the basis of public key procedures. The public key of a subscriber with the respective identification features will be authorised by a digital signature of a certification authority (CA).

 
PLC

Powerline Communications is the generic term for the data transmission via electric leads. The live cables are used here to transmit data in parallel with the energy supply. Powerline Communications (PLC) is also known under the term Digital Powerline (DPL).

 
PoE

Power over Ethernet is used to supply network devices, like IP phones, IP cameras, smaller hubs or wireless access points for example, via the Ethernet cable with power.

 
POP

The Post Office Protocol is a standard protocol for the transmission of e-mails from an e-mail server to an e-mail client of a user. The current version POP3 only allows to list, retrieve and delete e-mails on the e-mail server. Further functionalities are made available by other protocols like IMAP.

 
Port forwarding

Describes the possibility of forwarding a connection coming in via a network on a certain port to another computer within a network.

 
POTS

Plain Old Telephone Service describes in contrast to PSTN only the public wired telephone networks that are connected completely analogue.

 
PPP

ThePoint-to-Point Protocol is a network protocol for establishing a connection via dial-up lines. It is the standard protocol used by providers for dial-in of customers.

 
PPPoE

PPP over Ethernet is the use of PPP via an Ethernet connection.

 
Provider

Commercial supplier for providing telecommunications services for the public.

 
Proxy

Communication interface in a network. The proxy acts as an agent that receives requests on one side to establish a connection to the other side via its own address then. In contrast to NAT, a proxy server is able to communicate itself and have an effect on it instead of forwarding the packets without touching.

 
PSK

Pre-Shared Key designates such encryption methods which require that the key must be known by both participants before communication. PSK encryption can be realised much easier between to known participants than a PKI encryption. The disadvantage is that both participants must exchange the key in secret prior to the actual communication. This is the reason why PSK is not suitable for many Internet applications since the previous key exchange is not possible or much to complex in this case.

 
PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network (fixed line network) disgnates all public wired telephone networks. An analogue subscriber's telephone line may also be connected to a digital telephone network.

 

Q

QoS

Quality of Service describes the quality of a communication service from the user''s point of view, i.e. how much the quality of the service complies with the requirements.

 

R

Router

Network device for switching between two independent segments, e.g. between a LAN and the Internet.

 
RS232

Serial interface for data transmission, widespread as connection between control systems, measuring devices and modems.

 
RTS

Request To Send is an RS232 control line for the handshake.

 

S

SCADA

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is the monitoring and controlling of technical processes using a computer-system.

 
SCN

The Service Center Nummer is the phone number of the service center that accepts short messages (->SMS) via the cellular network and forwards them to the recipients.

 
SDSL

Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line is a transmission method for high-speed data transmission using regular phone lines. It is an symmetric broadband data transmission method that is connected to the conventional copper twin wire in the exchange area. Symmetric means here that the data rates are the same in both directions. An SDSL modem must be installed on both sides of the connection line for SDSL communication.

 
Serial Ethernet gateway

Serial devices can be connected to an Ethernet network using a serial-to-Ethernet adapter.

 
Server

Device that provides services, e.g. a web server or e-mail server, to other devices (clients).

 
Smart grid

Smart grids or smart power grids are intelligent power supply networks for need-driven and efficient energy distribution of centrally and locally supplied energy and controlling the consumption behaviour. Besides load management, automated network management is also an issue.

 
SMS

Short Message Service is a service for transmitting short text messages in the cellular network. The transmission is performed offline via the SMS Service Center (SMSC or short message center).

 
SMSC

The Short Message Service Centre is responsible for storing, forwarding, converting and delivering SMS messages in a cellular network.

 
Socket

Data connections that are established using TCP or UDP use sockets for addressing. A socket consists of an IP address and a port.

 
Start bit

RS232: Number of leading bits preceding a data word

 
Stop bit

RS232: Number of bits following a data word

 
Subnet mask

The netmask, network mask or subnet mask is a bit mask that specifies how much bits form the network part at the beginning of the respective IP address in the network protocol IPv4. Together with the IP address of a device, it defines which IP addresses are looked up in the own network by this device and which are tried to access in other networks via a router. The netmask divides the IP address of the device into a network part and a device part (host address part). The network part must be the same for all devices of the respective network and the device part must be different for each device within the network. The division between network part and host address part is performed by the subnet mask. A subnet mask that specifies that the first 24 bit of the address are part of the network part, is written as 255.255.255.0 or by adding /24 to the IPv4 address (e.g.www.xxx.yyy.zzz/24). In this case, it means that the network part is www.xxx.yyy and the host address part is zzz.

 
Switch

A device that can connect several machines via Ethernet. In contrast to a hub, a switch will "think" by itself, i.e. it can remember the MAC addresses connected to a port and directs the traffic more efficiently to the individual ports.

 

T

TCP

The Transmission Control Protocolis a protocol for exchanging data between computers.

 
Traffic

Transmitted data volume in byte that is billed with data rates in cellular networks.

 

U

UDP

TheUser Datagram Protocol is a minimal, connection-less network protocol that which care that the data transmitted via the Internet get to the right application. UDP provides a connection-less, non-reliable and unsecured transmission service.. There is no guarantee that a sent packet actually arrives, that packets arrive in the right order or that a packet arrives only once at the recipient. Moreover, it is not guaranteed that data reach the recipient uncompromised or not accessible to third parties. Applications that use UDP must not be sensitive to lost or unsorted packets or must provide appropriate correction or protection measures itself. A UDP connection cannot provide data protection.

 
UM

Unified Messaging is a technology that brings incoming messages and messages to be sent, like voice mail, e-mail, fax, SMS, etc., into a data format. Objectives are a) the procedure-related storage in ERP/CRM systems and b) the cross-network message dispatch, like e.g. SMS to fax, SMS to e-mail, e-mail to SMS and the dispatch of voice messages (voice mail) via e-mail with attached audio file. The services are configured proprietary by the providers and may not be available in all networks.

 
UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systemstands for the third generation cellular standard (3G) that allows data transmission rates of 384 kbit/s to 7,2 Mbit/s.

 
Unicast

The term Unicast (point-to-point) designates the transmission of messages between one sender and one sole recipient. Basically, all direct connections between two network participants are point-to-point connections.

 
URL

A Uniform Resource Locator identifies and localises a resource like e.g. a website via the used access method (e.g. the used network protocol like HTTP or FTP) and the location of the resource in computer networks.

 

V

VCom®

A Virtual COM Port is a software driver as remote terminal to serial terminal devices with a connection via IP-based networks.

 
VMO

A Virtual Mobile Operator is a mobile phone service provider without an own mobile phone network. He rents the exclusive rights to use a portion of the network capacity of another company (infrastructure provider). The VMO offers his customers to use this capacity for closed user groups for example against payment. The devices identify themselves during login and get always the same IP addresses. The alternative routing rules enable a free communication establishment among each other: mobile server, connections between mobile devices and polling from the master control are possible without restrictions.

 
VNC

Virtual Network Computing is a software for displaying the screen content of a remote computer (VNC server) on a local computer (VNC client). Local keyboard entries and mouse movements are transmitted to the remote computer. The local user can remote control the remote computer with this, e.g. for remote maintenance or commissioning support. VNC uses RFP as transmission protocol (Remote Framebuffer Protocol). Enhancements compress graphics data for ISDN applications (TightVNC) or provide authentication (UltraVNC, Windows only). Most VNC solutions can be used regardless of the platform on window-oriented systems, like Windows, Mac OS or X11.

 
VPN

AVirtual Private Network is a network consisting of virtual connections that are used for the transmission of non-public or company-internal data securely, even if public network infrastructures are used.

 

W

WAN

AWide Area Network is a computer network that extends across a very large geographical area.

 
WLAN

Wireless Local Area Networkdesignates a local wireless network as per IEEE 802.11.

 

X

X.509

ITU-T standard for a public key infrastructure (PKI) for generating digital certificates.

 

Y

 

Z

 

2

2.5G

Extension of GSM mobile radio by the data services GPRS and EDGE

 
2

Mobile radio system of the second generation (GSM) offering the services voice, SMS and direct data communication (CSD)

3

3G

Mobile radio system of the third generation offering higher data rates (UMTS, HSDPA, HSUPA)

8

802.11

IEEE 802.11 is a group of IEEE standards (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) for wireless networks (WLAN).